8.9 Subjunctive Mood

Instructor Video: Subjunctive Mood

Subjunctive verb forms are generally used to convey desirability, possibility, probability, uncertainty, or a wish about some future action or event.


If we delete the suffix گا ،گے، or, گی from the future verb forms, then the subjunctive verb form is remaining.

Future Subjunctive

میں بازار جاؤں گا-

“I will go to the market.”

شاید میں بازار جاؤں-

“Perhaps I might go to the market.”

ہم بازار جائیں گے-

“We will go to the market.”

شاید ہم بازار جائیں-

“Perhaps we might go to the market.”

وہ بازار جائے گا-

“He will go to the market.”

شاید وہ بازار جائے-

“Perhaps he might go to the market.”


  • The subjunctive form of a verb remains the same regardless of whether it refers to a masculine or a feminine subject.
  • Three verbs that are irregular forms in future (لینا to take, دینا to give, and ہونا to be) are also have irregular in the subjunctive case.
Subjunctive  Future Pronoun 
دینا  لینا  ہونا  دینا  لینا  ہونا 
دوں لوں ہوں دوں گا لوں گا ہوں گا میں
دیں لیں ہوں دیں گے لیں گے ہوں گے ہم
دے لے ہو دے گا لے گا ہو گا تو
دو لو ہو دوگے لوگے ہوگے تم
دیں لیں ہوں دیں گے لیں گے ہوں گے آپ
دے لے ہو دے گا لے گا ہو گا یہ
دے لے ہو دے گا لے گا ہو گا وہ
دیں لیں ہوں دیں گے لیں گے ہوں گے یہ
دیں لیں ہوں دیں گے لیں گے ہوں گے وہ


For examples:

“Perhaps he/she will go to Delhi tomorrow.” شاید وہ کل دلی جاۓ گا/گی- :Future

“He/She may go to Delhi tomorrow.”- شاید وہ کل دلی جاۓ :Subjunctive

“I will study Urdu next year, too.” اگلے سال بھی میں اردو پڑھو ں گا- : Future

“Perhaps I may study Urdu next year.” شاید اگلے سال بھی میں اردو پڑھو ں-  :Subjunctive

 Negation of Subjunctive

The negative particle used with the subjunctive is always نہ.

“Perhaps s/he may not go to Delhi tomorrow.”- شاید وہ کل دلی نہ جائے

“Perhaps it may not rain today.” –شاید آج بارش نہ ہو

Subjunctive Case in Imperfective and Perfective Aspects

In order to use subjunctive case in imperfective and perfective aspect, a subjunctive form of ہونا is added as an auxiliary to the habitual, progressive, or perfective forms of the main verb.


Simple Subjunctive

“Perhaps we may go to Delhi.” – جائیںشاید ہم دلی 

“Perhaps children may play cricket.” –شاید بچے کرکٹ کھیلیں


Subjunctive Habitual

“Perhaps he learned/used to learn Urdu in lockdown.” –شاید وہ لکھنؤ میں اردو پڑھتا ہو

“Perhaps she studies whole night.” –شاید وہ ساری رات پڑھائی کرتی ہو


Subjunctive Progressive 

“Perhaps we may be going to Delhi.”- شاید ہم دلی جا رہے ہوں

“Perhaps my friends may be watching some movie.” -شاید میرے دوست ابھی کوئی فلم دیکھ رہے ہوں


Subjunctive Perfective

“Perhaps s/he may have worked there.”- شاید اس نے وہاں کام کیا ہو

“Perhaps s/he may have said something to you.” -شاید اس نے تم سے کچھ –کہا ہو

Uses of Subjunctive Case

To express desirability.

“Let’s go out somewhere today.”- چلو آج کہیں باہر چلیں

“Let’s talk in Urdu today.” –چلو آج اردو میں بات کریں


To express advice/permission (may, should).

“May I come in?” –  آؤں میں اندر 

“May I go home?” –میں گھر جاؤں


Let’s Constructions

“Let’s go for a walk.” –چلیے گھومنے چلیں

“Let’s eat food.” –چلئے کھانا کھائیں


Most polite form of request.

“Please come with me.” – آئیںآپ میرے ساتھ 

“Let’s eat now.” –اب کھانا کھا ئیں


To express probability/uncertainty.

“Perhaps it may rain today.” –شاید آج بارش ہو

“Perhaps s/he may come here tomorrow.” –شاید کل وہ یہاں اے


To express wishes/blessings/curses.

“Wish you a happy birthday!” !سالگرہ مبارک ہو

“Wish you a happy new year!” !نیا سال مبارک ہو

Complex Sentences: Uses of Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses

The subjunctive case can be used in a subordinate clause to express desire and possibility.

For example:

……….. میں/ہم/تم/آپ/ وہ ……… چاہتا/چاھتی/چاہتے/چاہتیں ہوں/ہیں/ہو/ہیں کہ

“I want you to study Urdu.”- میں چاھتی ہوں کہ آپ اردو پڑھیں

“Mother wants me to become a doctor.”- امی چاہتی ہیں کہ میں ڈاکٹر بنوں


……….. میری/تمہاری/آپ کی/اس کی/ ان کی خواہش ہے کہ

“My mother wants me to go to India.” –میری امی کی خواہش ہے کہ میں ہندوستان جاؤں

“S/he wants us to eat sweets.” اس کی خواہش ہے کہ ہم مٹھائی کھائیں- 

More Expressions

Examples Expressions #
 “It would be great if she came back!” ! کتنا بہتر ہو کہ وہ واپس آئیں کتنا بہتر ہو کہ… 1
“If only today was a holiday.” کاش کہ … آج چھٹی ہو جائے  کاش کہ… 2
“You ought to/should help the poor.” تمھیں چاہئے کہ تم غریبوں کی مدد کرو کو چاہئے کہ x… 3
“It is necessary for us to help the poor.” یہ ضروری ہے کہ ہم غریبوں کی مدد کریں یہ ضروری ہے کہ… 4
“I think you should not go anywhere today.” میرا خیال ہے کہ آج تم کہیں نہ جاؤ  میرا خیال ہے کہ… 5
“It is possible that they will go to Pakistan.” ممکن ہے کہ وہ لوگ اگلے سال پاکستان جائیں   یہ ممکن ہے کہ… 6
“It may be that she will come tomorrow.” ہو سکتا ہے کہ کل وہ آئیں  یہ ہو سکتا ہے کہ… 7

Other constructions requires subjunctive with Conjunctions

(so that) …… تاکہ/جس سے کہ 

“Learn Urdu so that you can speak Urdu in Pakistan.” اردو پڑھو تاکہ / جس سے کہ پاکستان میں اردو بول سکو


The subjunctive of possibility is common in conditional (if…..then construction).

“If you ask, then I will also come with you.” اگر تم کہو تو میں بھی تمھارے ساتھ چلوں (گا)


In the sentence with (جب تک …… نہ), the subjunctive form is generally used (if the reference is to a future action).

 “Don’t come in until I call you.” جب تک میں نہ بلاؤں ، (تب تک) اندر نہ آنا


The subjunctive is used in “as if/as though” clauses that indicate supposition or imagined actions or situations, particularly after expressions such as “it seems as if/as though….” or “it appears as if/as though.”

“It seemed to us/we felt as if we were strangers there.” ہمیں ایسا لگا جیسے ہم وہاں اجنبی ہوں

“She is as pretty (that you would think of her) as though she were a rose.” وہ اتنی خوبصورت ہے مانو گلاب

Activity 1

Activity 1. Please write two subjunctive sentences in Urdu for each category to express a) desirability b) advice/permission c) “let’s” construction d) polite form of request e) probability/uncertainty and f) blessing/curse/wishes.
Please write two subjunctive sentences in Urdu that express:
.١  desirability (a)
.١  advice/permission (b)
.١  “let’s” construction (c)
.١  polite form of request (d)
.١  probability/uncertainty  (e)
.١  Blessing/Curse/Wishes (f)

Activity 2

(a) Food Recipe: Please write a recipe of your favorite Indian/South Asian food. You have done this before using imperative sentences. Here, you have to write the recipe using subjunctive sentences.

(b) Giving Direction: Imagine that you have invited a friend to your house for a party. Your friend does not know the direction from her/his house to your house. Please write directions in Urdu. (Hint: Please use subjunctive sentences).

(c) Good wishes:



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