1.6 chhoti ye ی , baRi ye ے , do chashmi he ھ , chhoti he ہ , hamza ء

chhoti ye ی and baRi ye ے

Sound Name Letter
i, y chhoti ye ی
ai baRi ye ے

The letters ی and ے function as both long vowels and semi-vowels. Close attention needs to be paid to the variants of these two letters, as they take different initial, middle, and final forms.

Initial Middle Final
ی + و+ م = یوم و + ز + ی + ر = وزیر پ + ا + ن + ی = پانی
ا + ے + س + ا = ایسا  چ + ل + ت + ے = چلتے

Gives the sound of a vowel i (as in English peel) as well as the semi-vowel y (as in yak).

a vowel i وزیر نانی تین
b semi-vowel y یوم نیا یار

Gives the sound of two different vowels: e (as in English bay) and ai (as in ash).

a long vowel e نیک دینا بیچ
b long vowel ai ایسا کیسا پیسا


Chapter 1.6.1_chhoti and baRi ye


do chashmi he ھ

Sound Name Letter
aspiration do chashmi he ھ

As you all know, Hindi and Urdu are the same language with two different scripts. Hindi has separate letters for aspirated consonants, but Urdu does not have separate letters. By using do chashmi he ھ, we can make Urdu’s unaspirated consonants aspirated.

do chashmi he ھ with non-connectors

ڑھ ڈھ دھ
Rh Dh dh

Please note that do chashmi he ھ joins with a following letter, even though it indicates aspiration for the previous letter.

Examples: آدھا , سیدھا , رادھا , دھرتی

do chashmi he ھ with connectors

Examples of do chashmi he ھ with connecting letters ب , ج , and ک groups.

a.     Aspiration for letters in the ب group is indicated as follows
bh بھ ب + ھ
ph پھ پ + ھ
th تھ ت + ھ
Th ٹھ ٹ + ھ
b.     Aspiration in ج group is indicated as follows
jh جھ ج + ھ
chh چھ چ + ھ
c.     Aspiration in ک group is indicated as follows
kh کھ ک + ھ
gh گھ گ + ھ


Chapter 1.6.2_do chashmi he


chhoti he ہ

Sound Name Letter
h, a, e chhoti ye ہ

chhoti he ہ shows both a consonant “h”, and vowels “a” and “e”. Please also see its very different shapes at the initial, middle, and final positions.

Initial Middle Final
ہ + ے = ہے ب + ہ + ت = بہت ک + ہ = کہ
ہ + ن + د + ی = ہندی ن + ہ + ی + ں = نہیں پ + ت + ہ = پتہ


Chapter 1.6.3_chhoti he


hamzaa ء

Sound Name Letter
hamzaa ء

hamzaa ء indicates the occurrence of two vowels in a sequence. Hamzaa is always placed on the second vowel except for certain combinations. Hamzaa ء is written with the help of a variant.


Chapter 1.6.4_hamzaa


Please check your learning.



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