# ب Series

 Sound Name Letter b be ب p pe پ t te ت T Te ٹ s se ث

All the letters of the ب series have similar shape in their independent, initial, medial, and final positions. They can only be differentiated by dots and diacritics.

 Initial Middle Final ب + ا + ر + = بار س + ب + ب = سبب ج + ب = جب پ + ا + ر = پار چ + پ + ٹ +  ا = چپٹا چ + پ = چپ ت + ا + ر = تار ب + ت + ا = بتا ر + ا + ت = رات ٹ + ب = ٹب ب + ٹ + ن = بٹن چ + ا + ٹ = چاٹ ث + ب + و + ت = ثبوت م + ث + ل = مثل ح + د + ی + ث = حدیث

Exercises: Please join the letters to form words. Join the letters to form words

# Jim ج Group

 Sound Name Letter j jim ج ch che چ h he ح kh khe خ

Urdu letters of the jim ج group look alike, but the placement of dots distinguishes them. Please learn the shape and the placement of the dots. Letters of the jim ج series are also connectors. They join the following letters in words. Like other connectors, letters of the jim ج series look different at the initial and middle positions. However, the final position and the full form of ج jim series look alike.

 Final Middle Initial Letter حج اجر جا ج جچ آچر چا چ آح آ ہر حا ح چخ آ خر خا خ

Exercises: Join the letters to form words

# Sin س Group

 s sin س sh shin ش

These two letters “s” and “sh” have only one difference: “sh” (ش) is written with three dots on the top of the “s” (س). These are connectors and like most connectors, letters in the Sin س group take the variant in the initial and medial positions, and the full form in the final position.

 Initial Middle Final س + ب  = سب م  + س + ت  = مست ب  + س = بس ش + ا  + م  = شام ح + ش + ر = حشر ک + ا + ش = کاش

Exercises:

1.3.3_Join the letters to form words