# Contents

**Front Matter**

**PART I: MANAGEMENT**

### Chapter 1: Financial Management and the Firm

- Introduction to Management
- Develop the Firm’s Mission Statement
- Choose the Firm’s Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
- Identify the Firm’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats
- Develop and Evaluate the Firm’s Strategy
- Implement the Firm’s Strategy
- Evaluate the Firm’s Performance
- The Firm Financial Management Process
- Trade-offs between Financial Goals and Objectives
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

### Chapter 2: Alternative Forms of Business Organizations

- Introduction
- Sole Proprietorship
- Partnerships
- Corporations
- Limited Liability Company
- Cooperative
- Trusts
- Farm Business Organization Types in US Agriculture
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

### Chapter 3: The Federal Tax System

- Introduction
- Individual Taxes
- Total Marginal Tax Rates
- Bracket Creep
- Interest and Dividend Income
- Interest Paid by Individuals
- Capital Gains and Losses
- Tax Credits
- Business Taxation
- Depreciation
- Bonus or Additional Depreciation
- Interest and Dividends Received
- Interest and Dividends Paid
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

### Chapter 4: Managing Risk

- Introduction
- Statistical Concepts Useful in Describing Risky Events and Risky Outcomes
- The Normal Probability Density Function (pdf)
- Direct and Indirect Outcome Variables
- Firm Responses to Risk
- Sharing Risky Outcomes
- Reducing Risk by Purchasing Insurance
- Diversification of Firm Investments
- Purchase Risk Reducing Investments
- Choosing an Optimal Capital Structure
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

**PART II: STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND THREATS**

### Chapter 5: Financial Statements

- Introduction
- Financial Statements
- The Balance Sheet
- Checkbooks and Sources and Uses of Funds (SAUF) Statement
- Statement of Cash Flow (SCF)
- Cash Income Statements
- Accrual Income Statement (AIS)
- More Complicated Financial Statements
- Over-identified Variables
- Constructing Consistent Coordinated Financial Statements (CFS): A Case Study
- Populating FFF’s Cash Income Statements to Conform to HQN’s Income Templates
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

### Chapter 6: Financial Ratios

- Introduction
- Financial Ratios
- Solvency Ratios
- Profitability Ratios
- Efficiency Ratios
- Liquidity Ratios
- Leverage Ratios
- Other Sets of Financial Ratios
- The DuPont Equation
- Comparing Firm Financial Ratios with Industry Standards
- Using Financial Ratios to Determine the Firm’s Financial Strengths and Weaknesses
- Limitations of Ratios
- Strengths and Weaknesses Summary
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

### Chapter 7: System Analysis

- Introduction
- Understanding Systems
- What-Is Analysis and SPELL Ratios
- What-if Analysis and SPELL Ratios
- Endogenizing Exogenous Variables and Parameters
- What-If Analysis and Scenarios
- How Much Analysis and Goal Seek
- Creating Subsystems by Exogenizing Endogenous Variables
- Common Size Balance Sheets and Income Statements
- What-if Analysis and Trade-offs
- Common Size Statements and Forecasting
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions
- Appendix to System Analysis

**PART III: PRESENT VALUE MODELS**

### Chapter 8: Present Value Models & Accrual Income Statements

- Introduction
- AIS and PV Models
- AIS Earnings and Rates of Return on Assets and Equity
- AIS and IRR Models
- AIS and IRR
^{A}Models - AIS and IRR
^{E}Models - AIS Earnings and NPV Models
- After-tax ROE and ROA
- After-tax Multiperiod IRR
^{E(1-T)}Model - After-tax Multi-period IRR
^{A(1–T*)}Model - Rates of Return on Assets and Equity
- Conflicting Asset and Equity Earnings and Rates of Return Rankings
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions
- Appendix to Present Value Models & Accrual Income Statements

### Chapter 9: Present Value Models

- Introduction
- Kinds of PV Models
- Net Present Value (NPV) Models
- Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Models
- Break-Even Models
- Maximum Bid (Minimum Sell) Models
- Break-even Cash Flow Models
- Annuity Equivalent (AE) Models
- Capitalization Formulas
- Optimal Life Models
- The Payback Model
- Present Value Models and Rates of Return
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

### Chapter 10: Incremental Investments

- Introduction
- Measuring Contributions from Incremental Investments
- Optimal Service Extractions Rates from Stand-alone and Incremental Investments
- Incremental Investments and Homogeneity of Size
- Green and White Services: A Stand-Alone Investment
- An Incremental Investment Problem: Adding Landscaping Services to GWS
- Brown and Round Doughnuts
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

### Chapter 11: Forecasting and Present Value Models

- Introduction
- Forecast Equations
- Forecast Equations and What we Know
- Deterministic Forecasts
- Linear Regression Forecasts
- Forecasts and Shocks
- Forecasting Exogenous Variables and the Accuracy of Endogenous Variables
- Qualitative Forecasts
- PV Models and Forecasts
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

**PART IV: HOMOGENEOUS MEASURES**

### Chapter 12: Ranking Investments and Homogeneous Measures

- Introduction
- Opportunity Costs
- One-dimensional Ranking Measures
- Homogeneous Measures
- Homogeneous Cash Flow Measures
- Other Homogeneous Measures
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

### Chapter 13: Homogeneous Sizes

- Introduction
- Periodic and Initial Investment Sizes
- Consistent IRR and NPV Rankings When the Reinvestment Rate is the Defender’s IRR
- Consistent IRR and NPV Rankings Assuming Reinvestment Rates are the Challenging Investments’ IRRs
- Resolving Initial Size Differences by Scaling
- Resolving Initial Size Differences by Addition
- Four Consistent Investment Ranking Models
- Comments on the Four Investment Models and Ranking Consistency
- When to Rank Challengers Using Four Models
- Ranking Investments when the Challengers are not Mutually Exclusive
- Common Practice, Common Problems, and Reinvestment Rates
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

### Chapter 14: Homogeneous Terms

- Introduction
- Present Values and Capitalization Rates
- Present Value (PV) Models and Averages
- More Complicated Capitalization Formulas
- Ranking One-time Investments with Unequal Terms using NPV Models
- IRR and NPV Models for Analyzing Repeatable Investments
- Ranking One-Time Investments
- Using Annuity Equivalents (AE) to Rank Repeatable Investments
- Finding the Optimal Replacement Age for Different Repeatable Investments
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

### Chapter 15: Homogeneous Tax Rates

- Introduction
- After-tax PV Models for Defenders and Challengers
- A General Approach for Finding the Defender’s After-tax IRR
- Tax Adjustment Coefficients in Finite Models
- Ranking Investments and Taxes
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

### Chapter 16: Homogeneous Liquidity and Currency

- Introduction
- Current-to-Total-Returns (CTR) Ratio
- Liquidity, Inflation, and Real Interest Rates
- Liquidity Implications
- Price-to-earnings (PE) Ratios
- Coverage (C) Ratios
- Exchange Rates and PV Models
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

## PART V: PRESENT VALUE MODEL APPLICATIONS

### Chapter 17: Loan Analysis

- Introduction
- Comparing the Actuarial Rate, Annual Percentage Rate (APR), and Effective Interest Rate
- Constant Payment Loans
- Comparing Interest Paid, Loan Term, and Payment Amounts for Constant Payment Loans
- Creating an Amortization Table for Constant Payment Loans
- PVs of Special Loans
- Concessionary Interest Rate Loans
- The Refinance Problem
- Moderated Payment Loans
- Disguised Interest Rate Loans
- Future Values
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

### Chapter 18: Land Investments

- Introduction
- Why are land prices so volatile?
- Maximum Bid (Minimum Sell) Price Models and Transaction Costs
- Land Values, Transaction Costs, and Liquidity
- Other Factors Contributing to Asset Liquidity
- Maximum Bid (Minimum Sell) Land Price Models with Taxes
- Finding the Tax Adjustment Coefficient θ
- Price-to-earnings Ratios for Land
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

### Chapter 19: Leases

- Introduction
- Types of Lease Agreements
- Lease Agreements and Taxes
- Lease Liquidity and Risk
- Net Present Cost of Leasing versus Purchasing
- Comparative Advantages for Leasee and Leasor
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

### Chapter 20: Financial Investments

- Introduction
- Valuation of Riskless Securities
- Compound Interest
- Bonds
- Coupons and Bonds
- Common Stocks
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions
- Derivation 20.1.
- Derivation 20.2.

### Chapter 21: Yield Curves

- Introduction
- Geometric Means and Periodic Discount Rates
- Predicting Future Economic Activities and Opportunities and Threats
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions

### Chapter 22: Econs and Humans

- Introduction
- Anomalies
- Commodities and Relational Goods
- Two setting for exchanging relational goods
- Anomalies and Isoutilities
- Summary and Conclusions
- Questions