5.6 Subject with को

 

Subject with को Video

Instructor Video: Subject with -को

In Hindi, subject can have a nominative case like English. Additionally, Hindi subject can also come with dative and ergative cases. Here, we are going to learn, subject with dative case. We use dative case when the subject is not a doer of an action, but an experiencer and/or a beneficiary of an action. Dative case in Hindi is marked with को “ko.”

There are a few verbs that take require dative subject with को marking. In this chapter, we are going to learn only three in details and I will mention a few others here too. But, you will encounter more verbs, adjectives and nouns that require subject with को, as you progress further in Hindi language learning journey. As subject is marked with dative case को, the verb agrees with the object of that sentence.

Verbs that require dative subject with को 
पसंद like
नापसंद dislike
चाहिए need

पसंद “to like.”

When you like someone or something, you are not doing anything actively, but you are mere experiencer of something that is pleasing to you. Hence, the verb “to like” needs a subject in dative case with को marker. When subject receive a case marker को which is a post-position, the subject changes into oblique form.

Examples
Hindi English Explanation
मुझे चाय पसंद है |  I like tea. मैं with को = मुझे in oblique, and verb है is agreeing with चाय “tea.” Literal translation of this Hindi sentence in English will be “to me tea is pleasing.” This pattern will follow for the rest of the examples given here.
मुझे मेरे छात्र पसंद हैं | I like my students. Here, the verb हैं is agreeing with plural subject छात्र “students.”
पीटर को हिन्दी पसंद है| Peter likes Hindi. Here, the verb है agrees with हिन्दी “Hindi.”
बचपन में, मेरे भाई को खिलौने पसंद थे | In childhood, My brother liked toys. Here, the verb थे agrees with खिलौने “toys.”

नापसंद “to dislike.”

Dislike is similar to like. Hence, the verb “to dislike” needs a subject in dative case with को marker. When subject receive a case marker को which is a post-position, the subject changes into oblique form.

Examples
Hindi English Explanation
मुझे कॉफ़ी नापसंद है |  I dislike coffee. मैं with को = मुझे in oblique, and verb है is agreeing with कॉफ़ी “coffee.” Literal translation of this Hindi sentence in English will be “to me coffee is displeasing.” This pattern will follow for the rest of the examples given here.
मुझे बेईमान लोग नापसंद हैं | I dislike dishonest people. Here, the verb हैं is agreeing with plural subject बेईमान लोग “dishonest people.”
पीटर को दौड़ना नापसंद है | Peter dislikes running. Here, the verb है agrees with a verb that acts as a noun (object) दौड़ना “to run.”
बचपन में, मेरी भाई को गाड़िया नापसंद थीं | In childhood, My brother disliked cars. Here, the verb थीं agrees with गाड़ियां “cars.”

Note: पसंद नहीं = नापसंद — I Hindi, native speakers tend to use negative marker नहीं with पसंद to express dislike.

For example:

  • मुझे कॉफ़ी पसंद नहीं है | I do not like (dislike) coffee.
  • पीटर को दौड़ना पसंद नहीं है | Peter does not like (dislikes) running. etc.

Activity

Please read the following questions carefully. After reading these question, please answer them and then ask these questions to three of your friends/family members and try to find common likes and dislikes.

Questions मुझे मेरे दोस्त को मेरे दोस्त को मेरे दोस्त को
1 आपको कौन सा फल पसंद है ?
2 आपको कौन सी सब्ज़ी पसंद है ?
3 आपको कौन सा रंग पसंद है ?
4 आपको कौन सा देश पसंद है ?
5 आपको कौन सा शहर पसंद है ?
6 आपको कौन सा फल नापसंद है ?
7 आपको कौन सी सब्ज़ी नापसंद है ?
8 आपको कौन सा रंग नापसंद है ?
9 आपको कौन सा देश नापसंद है ?
10 आपको कौन सा शहर नापसंद है ?

धन्यवाद!

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Basic Hindi I by Rajiv Ranjan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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