1.3 Dependent Vowels, and Vowel-Consonant Conjugation

Dependent Vowels

Vowels in Hindi can be written independently (we learned this in the last part) and dependently. When we write a word we need to conjugate consonant with vowel letter. In order to write that consonant and vowel clusters, we need to use dependent vowel marking attached with consonant. Here is a list of dependent vowel markers.

Table 6 (above). List of independent and dependent vowels in Hindi.
Independent
Dependent
Ø
ि
Independent
Dependent
Independent अं अ:
Dependent

Dependent Vowel Letters with Consonant Letters

Please watch the following video to learn how dependent vowels conjugate with consonant letters. Table 7 also shows examples of how half consonants are conjugating with dependent vowels.

Instructor Video: Dependent vowel and consonant conjugation

Table 7 (above). Examples of conjugations of vowel and consonant letters.
Half consonants
क् ग् त् द् प् व् स् ह्
Independent

Vowels

 

Dependent

Vowels

Conjugated consonant letters

Ø

का गा ता दा पा वा सा हा

ि

कि गि ति दि पि वि सि हि

की गी ती दी पी वी सी ही

कु गु तु दु पु वु सु हु

कू गू तू दू पू वू सू हू

के गे ते दे पे वे से हे

कै गै तै दै पै वै सै है

को गो तो दो पो वो सो हो

कौ गौ तौ दौ पौ वौ सौ हौ
अं

कं गं तं दं पं वं सं हं
अ:

क: ग: त: द: प: व: स: x

कृ गृ तृ दृ पृ वृ सृ हृ

Test Yourself

Reading and Writing Task

Please try to read the words in Worksheet 4 (below). You can write them down in Roman script then watch the video and check your answer.

Worksheet 4 (above). Reading and Writing: Please read these words and try to write them in Roman script and then check your answer using video 8 (below).
काका काला काकी कोख घी
गमला कुछ चाचा झकाझक चखो
कई आग कोई कौआ अचूक
जाओ आओ टोपी डाकू ढीली
बगीचा माता थोड़ा लड़का लड़की
कठिनाई किताब देवनागरी बारिश शाबाश
सिलाई ऋण कृपया भाषण पृथ्वी
         
प्रकाश  कार्य  प्रगति  ग्राहक  वर्तमान 
         
कुर्सी  चक्र  नम्रता पर्व  मर्द 
         

Instructor Video: Feedback on Worksheet 4

Consonants Cluster/Conjunct Consonants

Similar Consonants Cluster

In Hindi, similar consonants can come together in a word. They are pronounced as a lengthened consonants.

For example:

क्का च्चा कुत्ता
pakkaa bachchaa kuttaa

Different Consonants Cluster

In Hindi, different consonants can come together in a word. For pronunciation, one should start with the place of articulation of the first consonant, but move the tongue position to the second consonant before releasing the air.

For example:

त्य प्या त्वचा
saty pyaar twachaa

Dependent Vowel-Consonants Cluster Conjugation

When the dependent vowels come together with the consonant clusters, the dependent vowels are marked at the second consonant in a consonant cluster.

Exception the short “i” [इ/ि) marker, the short “i” marker comes before the half/first consonant in a consonant cluster.

For example:

ि
क्या क्ति पत्नी च्युत न्यूनतम क्लेश द्वैत त्योहार प्रौढ़
kyaa shakti patnii chyut nyoonatam klesh dvait tyohaar prauRh

Test Yourself

Reading and Writing Task

Please try to read the words in Worksheet 5 (below). You can write them down in Roman script then watch the video and check your answer.

Worksheet 5 (above). Reading and Writing: Please read these words and try to write them in Roman script and then check your answer using video 9 (below).
मुख्य सत्य मक्खन क्लास ग्लास
बच्चा ग्रहण मट्ठा ज्ञान ज्यादा
मध्य विद्या त्वचा वत्स न्याय
स्वाद शक्ति प्यार स्तम्भ कक्षा
स्तब्ध वात्सल्य भक्ति वृद्ध पृष्ट

Instructor Video: Feedback on Worksheet 5

धन्यवाद !

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Basic Hindi I by Rajiv Ranjan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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