3.6 Apostrophe “S” (‘s) in Hindi

Apostrophe “S” Video

Instructor Video: Apostrophe s (‘s)

In Hindi, genitive case/apostrophe s (‘s) is expressed by a postposition का (kaa). In English, we can say “car of Ram,” and “Ram’s car” which mean the same thing. In Hindi, phrase like “car of Ram” is not possible. Hence, phrase like “Ram’s car” is used to express both kinds of phrases.

The postposition का (kaa) comes after nouns/pronouns, and it changes them from nouns to adjectives. का also changes its form according to number and gender of the following noun.

For examples:

  • राम का घर (m.) = Ram’s home/ home of Ram
  • राम की गाड़ी (f.) = Ram’s car/ car of Ram
  • राम के दोस्त (plu.) = Ram’s friends/ friends of Ram
  • सीता का कमरा (m.) = Sita’s room/ room of Sita
  • सीता की किताब (f.) = Sita’s book/ book of Sita
  • सीता के बच्चे (plu.) = Sita’s children/ children of Sita

When का comes after a noun/pronoun then that noun/pronoun changes in oblique case (see chapter 4 for oblique case in details).

For examples

  • लड़के का भाई (m.) = boy’s brother/ brother of a boy
  • लड़के की बहन (f.) = boy’s sister/ sister of a boy
  • लड़के के कपड़े (plu.) boy’s clothes/ clothes of a boy
  • कमरे का दरवाज़ा (m.) = room’s door/ door of a room
  • कमरे की खिड़की (f.) = room’s window/ window of a room
  • कमरे के परदे (plu.) = room’s curtains/ curtains of a room

Note: In above examples, लड़के and कमरे are in oblique form. They are not in the plural form, although the oblique and plural form of लड़का and कमरा look alike.

Activity

Please fill in the blanks with the correct form of का.

Noun का/की/के  Noun English 
कमरे परदे (m. plu.) room’s curtains
कमरे दरवाज़ा (m. sing.) room’s door
कमरे खिड़कियाँ (f. plu.) room’s windows
ऋषि भाई (m. sing.) Rishi’s brother
ऋषि बहन (f. sing.) Rishi’s sister
ऋषि पिता जी (m. sing./hon) Rishi’s father
ऋषि खिलौने (m. plu.) Rishi’s toys
शिल्पा पति (m. sing./hon) Shilpaa’s husband
शिल्पा सास (f. sing.) Shilpaa’s mother-in-law
शिल्पा ननदें  (f. plu.) Shilpaa’s sisters-in-law
शिल्पा बच्चे (m. plu.) Shilpaa’s children
शिल्पा ससुर (m. sing./hon) Shilpaa’s father-in-law

Pronouns with का/की/के

Possessive pronoun/adjective is formed by adding का/की/के with personal pronouns. These pronouns change in oblique forms as shown in a table below.

Table: List of possessive pronouns/adjective
English Hindi + का/की/के  Hindi English
I मैं + का/की/के मेरा /मेरी / मेरे My
We हम + का/की/के हमारा / हमारी / हमारे Our
You तू + का/की/के तेरा / तेरी / तेरे Your
You तुम + का/की/के तुम्हारा / तुम्हारी / तुम्हारे Your
You आप + का/की/के आपका / आपकी / आपके Your
S/he (near) यह + का/की/के इसका / इसकी / इसके His/her
S/he (far) वह + का/की/के उसका / उसकी / उसके His/her
They (near) ये + का/की/के इनका / इनकी / इनके Their
They (far) वे + का/की/के उनका / उनकी / उनके Their
Who (Singular) कौन + का/की/के किसका / किसकी / किसके Whose
Who (plural) किन + का/की/के किनका / किनकी / किनके Whose

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Basic Hindi I by Rajiv Ranjan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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