1.2 हिंदी व्यंजन वर्ण “Hindi Consonant Letters”

Please watch the following video of Hindi consonant letters. While watching the video, you can pause and try to say each letter out loud.

Instructor Video: Hindi Consonant letters

Writing Consonant Letters

Please watch the following video and try to learn how to write consonant letters.

Instructor Video: Writing Consonants

Table 4. List of Consonant Letter with their English equivalent sounds.

Table 4 (above). Hindi consonant letters with their English equivalent and their place and manner of articulations.
  Place of Articulation Unvoiced Unaspirated Unvoiced Aspirated Voiced Unaspirated Voiced Aspirated Nasal
Hindi Velar 

क 

ख 

ग 

घ 

English ka kha ga gha nga
Hindi Palatal

च 

छ 

ज 

झ 

      ञ

English cha chha ja jha nja
Hindi Retroflex

ट 

ठ 

ड/ 

ढ/

ण 

English Ta Tha Da/Ra Dha/Rha Na
Hindi Dental

त 

थ 

द 

ध 

न 

English ta tha da dha na
Hindi Labial

फ 

ब 

भ 

म 

English pa pha ba bha ma
Hindi Semi-vowels

य 

र 

ल 

व 

English ya ra la va/wa
Hindi Sibilants

स 

श 

ष 

English sa sha shha
Hindi Glotal

ह 

English ha
Hindi Clusters

 

English   ksha tra jna

Table 5. Examples of Hindi Consonants in English and Hindi words

Table 5 (above). Examples of consonant letters in Hindi and English words.
Consonants English Hindi Notes

SKILL, STICK
लम, पड़ा

रगोश, रा
“ख” is pronounced as “क,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

GUN, GOAL
मला, ड़बड़

र, ड़ी
“घ” is pronounced as “ग,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

गंगा, कंघी
Velar nasal does not explicitly appear in a word. It comes as a dot (.) above the letter to show nasalization.

PITCH, SWITCH
रखा, रित्र

त, ड़ी
“छ” is pronounced as “च,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

JUG, JOKE
ग, टिल

रना, गड़ा
“झ” is pronounced as “ज,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

पंजाब, पंच
Palatal nasal does not explicitly appear in a word. It comes as a dot (.) above the letter to show nasalization.

BAT, CAT
मार,

ठेरा,
“ठ” is pronounced as “ट,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

BAD, CARD
मरू, ब्बा

क्कन, हना
“ढ” is pronounced as “ड,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

ठंडा, अंडा
Retroflex nasal does not explicitly appear in a word. It comes as a dot (.) above the letter to show nasalization.

रबूज, नाव
“त” is pronounced as “ट,” with the tongue at dental position.

रमस, कना
“थ” is pronounced as “त,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

THE, THEN
वा, रवाज़ा

न, नुष
“ध” is pronounced as “द,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

NO, NEAR
ल, हाना

NAP, SLEEP
तंग, लंग

ल, टना
“फ” is pronounced as “प,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

TUB, PUB
करी, दन

लाई, रोसा
“भ” is pronounced as “ब,” but with aspiration (extra puff of air).

MOM, MONEY
छली, मता

YELLOW, YES
ज्ञ,

REST, RIVER
स्सी, चना

LAMP, LARGE
ट्टू, ड़का

WAY, WINE
वर्दी, वकील
Hindi has only “व” for English “W,” and “V.”

SUN, SERVICE
ब्ज़ी, ड़क

SHOE, SHINE
लगम,

ट्भुज, ड्यंत्र
“ष” is pronounced as “श,” with the tongue at retroflex position.

HINDI, HUB
रा, रिन

क्ष

क्षत्रिय, वृक्ष
“क्ष”  is a borrowed letter from Sanskrit. It does not have English equivalent.

त्र

त्र, पात्र
“त्र”  is a borrowed letter from Sanskrit. It does not have English equivalent.

ज्ञ

ज्ञ,
“ज्ञ”  is a borrowed letter from Sanskrit. It does not have English equivalent.

Worksheet 2. Please practice writing these consonant letters

Worksheet 2. Hindi language learners can download the worksheet below to practice writing consonant letters.

Worksheet 2 PDF

Test Yourself

Activity 1: Match the followings

Activity 2: Choose the correct option.

Activity 3:

Please record your consonant sounds here and share it with your friends/teacher for further feedback.

Reading and Writing Task

You should try to read the words in Worksheet 3 (below). You can write them down in Roman script then watch the following video and check your answer.

Worksheet 3 (above). Reading and Writing: Please read these words and try to write them in Roman script and then check your answer using video 5 (below).

जल 

नल 

सच 

झट 

रथ 

फल 

हल 

मत 

पर 

घर 

डर 

बस 

कह 

चख 

कर 

मत 

हर 

अब 

पढ़ 

यम 

कलम 

कमल 

खरब 

कलश 

महल 

बतख 

मदन 

पलक 

नहर 

भजन 

शहद 

शहर 

सड़क 

मगर 

चरण 

पकड़ 

इधर 

ऊपर 

गरम 

परत 

कसरत 

अजगर 

दशरथ 

शरबत 

टमटम 

बरगद 

नटखट 

उबटन 

परवल 

पनघट 

चमचम 

लगभग 

करवट 

जगमग

हलचल 

Instructor Video: Feedback on Worksheet 3

Half Consonants

Unlike English, Hindi has half consonants (consonant without vowel). In Hindi, half consonants are used to form consonant clusters in words.

Please watch the following video to learn how to write half consonant.

Instructor Video: Half Consonants

Picture 1. Handwritten half consonant in both styles.

 

Picture 2. Typed half consonants in Hindi

 

Half “र” (R)

Half “र” when it comes in a consonant cluster, it is written in two ways.

(a) When half “र” comes after another consonant, it is marked as a diagonal stroke at the bottom of the letter going from right top to the left bottom.

For example:

प्र प्रेम Prem
क्र क्रम kram
ग्र ग्राहक graahak

(b) When “र” come before another consonant, it is marked on the top of another consonant as a “रेफ” reph.

For example:

र्प सर्प sarp
र्य आर्य aary
र्षा वर्षा (if there is a long vowel, reph goes on the top of the long vowel) warshhaa

धन्यवाद !

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Basic Hindi I by Rajiv Ranjan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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