7.6 Grammar: Tense and Aspect

Tense

Instructor Video: Tense and Aspect

Tense is a time of an action. In all languages, tense is categorized in three types, namely, (a) present tense, (b) past tense, and (c) future tense.

In Hindi, tense is marked with auxiliary verbs and/or morphemes attached to the verb stem, as shown below.

Past tense Present tense Future tense
Auxiliary verbs: था, थे, थी, थीं  Auxiliary verbs: हूँ, हो, है, हैं Auxiliary verbs: होगा, होगे, होगी, होंगी 
Examples:

 

  • कल बारिश हो रही थी | “It was raining yesterday.”
  • पिछले साल, मैं भारत गया था | “I had gone to India last year.”
Examples:

 

  • आज बारिश हो रही है | “It is raining today.”
  • मैं भारत जा रहा हूँ | “I am going to India.”

 

Examples:

 

  • कल  बारिश होगी | “It will rain tomorrow.
  • अगले साल, मैं भारत जाऊँगा | “I will go to India next year.”

Aspect

Aspect shows the manner of an action. Grammatical aspects are categorized in two types, namely, (a) imperfective aspect, and (b) perfective aspect. Imperfective aspect shows that the action is not completed. Perfective aspect shows that the action is complete.

Imperfective aspect is further categorized in two types, namely, (a) habitual and (b) progressive/continuous.

All grammatical aspects in Hindi are marked as morphemes with verb stem, as shown below.

Imperfective Aspect Perfective Aspect
Habitual Progressive/Continuous
Morphemes: -ता. -ते, -ती रहा, रहे, रही -आ, -ए, -ई, -ईं
Examples:

 

  • मैं किताब पढ़ता हूँ | “I read a book.”
  • सीता क्रिकेट खेलती है | “Sita plays cricket.”
  • लड़के कमरा साफ़ करते हैं | “Boys cleans a room.”
Examples:

 

  • मैं किताब पढ़ रहा हूँ | “I am reading a book.”
  • सीता क्रिकेट खेल रही है | “Sita is playing cricket.”
  • लड़के कमरा साफ़ कर रहे हैं | “Boys are cleaning a room.”
Examples:

 

  • मैंने किताब पढ़ी | “I read a book.”
  • सीता ने क्रिकेट खेला | “Sita played cricket.”
  • लड़कों ने कमरा साफ़ किया | “Boys cleaned a room.”

Activity

Please read these sentences carefully and identify the tense and aspect.

धन्यवाद !

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Basic Hindi I by Rajiv Ranjan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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